Mark A. Cline

Associate Professor

  • Ph.D. in Neurobiology of Appetite, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

My career has focused on 1) teaching about the biological sciences and 2) understanding the neuroscience of appetite.  I grew up in the Shenandoah Valley and came to Virginia Tech as an undergraduate student.  It was at the undergraduate level that I discovered my interest in research.  During my master’s degree, through serving as a teaching assistant, I found that I enjoyed helping others by simplifying complex biological information such that an overall big picture is more easily visualized.  My Ph.D. work, researching the neuroscience of eating disorders, set the course for my long-term research career.  After earning my Ph.D., I joined the faculty in the Biology Department at Radford University where I established my research program and was heavily involved in teaching.  In 2012 I returned to Virginia Tech as a faculty member and have since contributed to the establishment of the then new neuroscience undergraduate program.  I have taught the introductory neuroscience course and worked with several neuroscience majors in the research laboratory.               

The overarching goal of my research program is to explain appetite regulation and to inspire the next generation of neurobiologists. Our group studies neurotransmitters that are associated with the perception of hunger and satiety with a particular interest at the diencephalon and myelencephalon level. The animal models we most commonly use are birds including those from lines that have undergone long-term divergent selection for body weight. These lines consist of anorexic and obese individuals.  We have demonstrated that the severity of anorexia is a function of early life stress exposure, and elucidated the accompanying hypothalamic changes. The results of our research may contribute to increased production efficiencies and also may contribute to the pharmacological cure for anorexia or obesity in a variety of species, including humans. Using birds, the closest taxonomic out-group to mammals, provides a unique perspective with respect to the evolutionary process associated with eating.  We were the first to report the appetite-associated roles of six neurotransmitters in any species and we have contributed to the elucidation of other mechanisms of appetite adjustment.  Additional emphasis is placed on crosstalk between the brain and adipose tissue in the development of obesity with the goal of changing adiposity via changes in hypothalamic signaling.   

1: Wang G, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Responses to peripheral neuropeptide Y in avian adipose tissue are diet, depot, and time specific. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018 Jun 1;262:12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.03.007. Epub 2018 Mar 3. PubMed PMID: 29510148.

2: McConn BR, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Appetite-associated responses to central neuropeptide Y injection in quail. Neuropeptides. 2018 Jun;69:9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2018.03.001. Epub 2018 Mar 9. PubMed PMID: 29573813. 

3: Piekarski A, Nagarajan G, Ishola P, Flees J, Greene ES, Kuenzel WJ, Ohkubo T, Maier H, Bottje WG, Cline MA, Dridi S. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Mediates the Effect of Leptin on Avian Autophagy in a Tissue-Specific Manner. Front Physiol. 2018 May 15;9:541. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00541. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29867578; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5963154.

4: Tachibana T, Ishimaru Y, Makino R, Khan SI, Cline MA. Effect of central injection of tumor-necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A and interferons on food intake in chicks. Physiol Behav. 2018 May 15;194:199-204. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.05.015. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29775631.

5: Tachibana T, Kadomoto Y, Khan MSI, Makino R, Cline MA. Effect of l-tryptophan and its metabolites on food passage from the crop in chicks. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2018 Mar 16;64:59-65. doi: 10.1016/j.domaniend.2018.03.001. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29753195.

6: McConn BR, Matias J, Wang G, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Dietary macronutrient composition affects hypothalamic appetite regulation in chicks. Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Jan;21(1):49-58. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2016.1219103. Epub 2016 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 27686011.

7: Wang J, Yi J, Siegel PB, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Stress-induced suppression of neuropeptide Y-induced hunger in anorexic chicks involves corticotrophin-releasing factor signalling and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017 Dec;29(12). doi: 10.1111/jne.12555. PubMed PMID: 29121414.

8: Liu L, Wang G, Xiao Y, Shipp SL, Siegel PB, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Peripheral neuropeptide Y differentially influences adipogenesis and lipolysis in chicks from lines selected for low or high body weight. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017 Nov;213:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.08.001. Epub 2017 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 28789975.

9: Lear T, Liu L, O'Donnell M, McConn BR, Denbow DM, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced anorexia in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) likely involves the ventromedial hypothalamus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017 Oct 1;252:97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2017.08.005. Epub 2017 Aug 4. PubMed PMID: 28782535.

10: Wang G, Kim WK, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Factors affecting adipose tissue development in chickens: A review. Poult Sci. 2017 Oct 1;96(10):3687-3699. doi: 10.3382/ps/pex184. Review. PubMed PMID: 28938790.

11: Wang G, Williams CA, McConn BR, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017 Sep;211:49-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.06.006. Epub 2017 Jun 16. PubMed PMID: 28625910.  

12: Sims W, Yi J, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Central injection of a synthetic chicken partial leptin peptide does not affect food intake in chicks. Neurosci Lett. 2017 Aug 24;656:165-168. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.07.038. Epub 2017 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 28751205.

13: Yuan J, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. The central anorexigenic mechanism of amylin in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) involves pro-opiomelanocortin, calcitonin receptor, and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017 Aug;210:28-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.05.011. Epub 2017 May 26. PubMed PMID: 28552562.

14: Yi J, Yuan J, Gilbert ER, Siegel PB, Cline MA. Differential expression of appetite-regulating genes in avian models of anorexia and obesity. J Neuroendocrinol. 2017 Aug;29(8). doi: 10.1111/jne.12510. PubMed PMID: 28727208.

15: Shipp SL, Wang G, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Chick subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots respond differently in lipolytic and adipogenic activity to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017 Jul;209:56-64. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2017.04.013. Epub 2017 Apr 22. PubMed PMID: 28438719.

16: Delp MS, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. The central effects of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in chicks involve changes in gene expression of neuropeptide Y and other factors in distinct hypothalamic nuclei. Neurosci Lett. 2017 Jun 9;651:52-56. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.04.064. Epub 2017 May 1. PubMed PMID: 28473259.

17: Tachibana T, Kodama T, Yamane S, Makino R, Khan SI, Cline MA. Possible role of central interleukins on the anorexigenic effect of lipopolysaccharide in chicks. Br Poult Sci. 2017 Jun;58(3):305-311. doi: 10.1080/00071668.2017.1280774. Epub 2017 Mar 17. PubMed PMID: 28090781.

18: Matias JA, Gilbert ER, Denbow DM, Cline MA. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of rosiglitazone on appetite-associated parameters in chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017 May 15;246:99-104. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.12.021. Epub 2015 Dec 23. PubMed PMID: 26723189.

19: Zhang W, Didehvar D, Wang G, Yi J, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Anorexigenic effect of serotonin is associated with changes in hypothalamic nuclei activity in an avian model. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017 May 15;246:81-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.03.014. Epub 2015 May 8. PubMed PMID: 25963044.

20: Wang G, McConn BR, Liu D, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. The effects of dietary macronutrient composition on lipid metabolism-associated factor gene expression in the adipose tissue of chickens are influenced by fasting and refeeding. BMC Obes. 2017 May 10;4:14. doi: 10.1186/s40608-017-0150-8. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28496985; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5424285.

21: Tachibana T, Nakai Y, Makino R, Khan MSI, Cline MA. Effect of central and peripheral injection of prostaglandin E2 and F2α on feeding and the crop-emptying rate in chicks. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2017 May;130:30-37. doi: 10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2017.03.005. Epub 2017 Apr 3. PubMed PMID: 28385509.

22: McConn BR, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Dietary macronutrient composition and central neuropeptide Y injection affect dietary preference and hypothalamic gene expression in chicks. Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Mar 10:1-11. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1296606. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28279130.

23: Tachibana T, Ogino M, Makino R, Khan MS, Cline MA. Lipopolysaccharide reduces food passage rate from the crop by a prostaglandin-independent mechanism in chickens. Br Poult Sci. 2017 Feb;58(1):100-106. doi: 10.1080/00071668.2016.1237768. Epub 2016 Dec 2. PubMed PMID: 27871194; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5359745.

24: Shipp SL, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Promotion of adipogenesis by neuropeptideduring the later stages of chicken preadipocyte differentiation. Physiol Rep. 2016 Nov;4(21). pii: e13006. PubMed PMID: 27803314; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5112489.

25: Shipp SL, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Recent advances in the understanding of how neuropeptide Y and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone function in adipose physiology. Adipocyte. 2016 Jul 13;5(4):333-350. eCollection 2016 Oct-Dec. Review. PubMed PMID: 27994947; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5160404.

26: McConn BR, Yi J, Gilbert ER, Siegel PB, Chowdhury VS, Furuse M, Cline MA. Stimulation of food intake after central administration of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone is similar in genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016 Jun 1;232:96-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.01.004. Epub 2016 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 26764213.

27: Yi J, Delp MS, Gilbert ER, Siegel PB, Cline MA. Anorexia is Associated with Stress-Dependent Orexigenic Responses to Exogenous Neuropeptide Y. J Neuroendocrinol. 2016 May;28(5). doi: 10.1111/jne.12378. PubMed PMID: 26924179.

28: Cline MA. Increasing RN Accountability in Professional Practice: Development of a Pain Reassessment Documentation Scorecard. J Nurs Adm. 2016 Mar;46(3):128-31. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000311. PubMed PMID: 26906517.

29: Ogino M, Khan MSI, Cline MA, Tachibana T. Acute injections of corticosterone, norepinephrine and epinephrine retards food passage in the crop of chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016 Jan 1;225:155-161. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.10.015. Epub 2015 Nov 11. PubMed PMID: 26519762.

30: Masunari K, Cline MA, Khan SI, Tachibana T. Feeding response following central administration of mesotocin and arginine-vasotocin receptor agonists in chicks (Gallus gallus). Physiol Behav. 2016 Jan 1;153:149-54. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.11.001. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 26545301.

31: Davis M, Jessee R, Close M, Fu X, Settlage R, Wang G, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Fasting for 21days leads to changes in adipose tissue and liver physiology in juvenile checkered garter snakes (Thamnophis marcianus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015 Dec;190:68-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.09.001. Epub 2015 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 26358832.

32: Shipp SL, Smith ML, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Beta-cell-tropin is associated with short-term stimulation of food intake in chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015 Dec 1;224:278-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Aug 4. PubMed PMID: 26248228.

33: Wang G, Tachibana T, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Exogenous prolactin-releasing peptide's orexigenic effect is associated with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in chicks. Neuropeptides. 2015 Dec;54:79-83. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Aug 14. PubMed PMID: 26349952.

34: Bai S, Wang G, Zhang W, Zhang S, Rice BB, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Broiler chicken adipose tissue dynamics during the first two weeks post-hatch. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015 Nov;189:115-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.08.002. Epub 2015 Aug 8. PubMed PMID: 26263851.

35: Parker GA, Sumners LH, Zhao X, Honaker CF, Siegel PB, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Delayed access of low body weight-selected chicks to food at hatch is associated with up-regulated pancreatic glucagon and glucose transporter gene expression. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015 Nov;189:124-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.08.004. Epub 2015 Aug 8. PubMed PMID: 26260898.

36: McConn BR, Park J, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. A novel role for xenopsin: Stimulation of food intake. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Oct 1;292:500-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.06.039. Epub 2015 Jul 4. PubMed PMID: 26151286.

37: Wang G, Tachibana T, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Dietary Macronutrient Composition Affects the Influence of Exogenous Prolactin-Releasing Peptide on Appetite Responses and Hypothalamic Gene Expression in Chickens. J Nutr. 2015 Oct;145(10):2406-11. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.214338. Epub 2015 Sep 9. PubMed PMID: 26355003.

38: Shipp SL, Yi J, Dridi S, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks. Neuropeptides. 2015 Oct;53:29-35. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2015.07.005. Epub 2015 Aug 8. PubMed PMID: 26297349.

39: Gray C, Price CW, Lee CT, Dewald AH, Cline MA, McAnany CE, Columbus L, Mura C. Known structure, unknown function: An inquiry-based undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2015 Jul-Aug;43(4):245-62. doi: 10.1002/bmb.20873. Epub 2015 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 26148241; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4758391.

40: Yi J, Gilbert ER, Siegel PB, Cline MA. Fed and fasted chicks from lines divergently selected for low or high body weight have differential hypothalamic appetite-associated factor mRNA expression profiles. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jun 1;286:58-63. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.02.008. Epub 2015 Feb 10. PubMed PMID: 25677648.

41: Zhang W, Kim S, Settlage R, McMahon W, Sumners LH, Siegel PB, Dorshorst BJ, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Hypothalamic differences in expression of genes involved in monoamine synthesis and signaling pathways after insulin injection in chickens from lines selected for high and low body weight. Neurogenetics. 2015 Apr;16(2):133-44. doi: 10.1007/s10048-014-0435-8. Epub 2015 Jan 13. PubMed PMID: 25582322.

42: Nelson LA, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Mar 30;591:171-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.02.017. Epub 2015 Feb 11. Erratum in: Neurosci Lett. 2015 May 19;595():114-5. PubMed PMID: 25681626.

43: Zhang W, Bai S, Liu D, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Neuropeptide Y promotes adipogenesis in chicken adipose cells in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015 Mar;181:62-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.11.012. Epub 2014 Nov 22. PubMed PMID: 25461485.

44: McConn B, Wang G, Yi J, Gilbert ER, Osugi T, Ubuka T, Tsutsui K, Chowdhury VS, Furuse M, Cline MA. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone-stimulation of food intake is mediated by hypothalamic effects in chicks. Neuropeptides. 2014 Dec;48(6):327-34. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2014.09.001. Epub 2014 Sep 11. PubMed PMID: 25305807.

45: Rice BB, Zhang W, Bai S, Siegel PB, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia associations with gene expression changes in liver and hypothalamus of chickens from lines selected for low or high body weight. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014 Nov 1;208:1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.08.010. Epub 2014 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 25157791.

46: Zhang S, McMillan RP, Hulver MW, Siegel PB, Sumners LH, Zhang W, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Chickens from lines selected for high and low body weight show differences in fatty acid oxidation efficiency and metabolic flexibility in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Oct;38(10):1374-82. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2014.8. Epub 2014 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 24441038.

47: Mace JD, Tachibana T, Wang G, Newmyer BA, Guilliams E, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Substance P is associated with hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus activation that coincides with increased urotensin 2 mRNA in chicks. Neuropeptides. 2014 Oct;48(5):305-11. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2014.06.001. Epub 2014 Jun 24. PubMed PMID: 25005752.

48: Wang G, Brumfield B, DiCroce M, Nelson L, Newmyer BA, Flower J, Hipskind K, Sharma S, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. Anorexigenic effects of central adrenomedullin are associated with hypothalamic changes in juvenile Gallus gallus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014 Aug 1;204:223-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.05.032. Epub 2014 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 24929231.

49: Zhang W, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Hypothalamus-adipose tissue crosstalk: neuropeptide Y and the regulation of energy metabolism. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Jun 10;11:27. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-11-27. eCollection 2014. Review. PubMed PMID: 24959194; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4066284.

50: Sumners LH, Zhang W, Zhao X, Honaker CF, Zhang S, Cline MA, Siegel PB, Gilbert ER. Chickens from lines artificially selected for juvenile low and high body weight differ in glucose homeostasis and pancreas physiology. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2014 Jun;172:57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.02.020. Epub 2014 Mar 5. PubMed PMID: 24614025.

51: Zhang S, Hulver MW, McMillan RP, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. The pivotal role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases in metabolic flexibility. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2014 Feb 12;11(1):10. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-11-10. PubMed PMID: 24520982; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3925357.

52: Ogino M, Okumura A, Khan MS, Cline MA, Tachibana T. Comparison of brain urocortin-3 and corticotrophin-releasing factor for physiological responses in chicks. Physiol Behav. 2014 Feb 10;125:57-61. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.11.006. Epub 2013 Nov 27. PubMed PMID: 24291384.

53: Zhang W, Sumners LH, Siegel PB, Cline MA, Gilbert ER. Quantity of glucose transporter and appetite-associated factor mRNA in various tissues after insulin injection in chickens selected for low or high body weight. Physiol Genomics. 2013 Nov 15;45(22):1084-94. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00102.2013. Epub 2013 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 24046279.

54: Masunari K, Khan MS, Cline MA, Tachibana T. Central administration of mesotocin inhibits feeding behavior in chicks. Regul Pept. 2013 Nov 10;187:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2013.10.004. Epub 2013 Oct 29. PubMed PMID: 24183984.

55: Zhang W, Cline MA, Liu D, Gilbert ER. Knockdown of ZBED6 is not associated with changes in murine preadipocyte proliferation or differentiation. Adipocyte. 2013 Oct 1;2(4):251-5. doi: 10.4161/adip.26028. Epub 2013 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 24052901; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3774701.

56: Hagen CJ, Newmyer BA, Webster RI, Gilbert ER, Siegel PB, Tachibana T, Cline MA. Stimulation of food intake after central galanin is associated with arcuate nucleus activation and does not differ between genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens. Neuropeptides. 2013 Aug;47(4):281-5. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2012.11.003. Epub 2013 Jan 29. PubMed PMID: 23369300.

57: Webster RI, Newmyer BA, Furuse M, Gilbert ER, Cline MA. The orexigenic effect of kyotorphin in chicks involves hypothalamus and brainstem activity and opioid receptors. Neuropeptides. 2013 Jun;47(3):193-8. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2012.10.007. Epub 2012 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 23261360.

58: Khan MS, Cline MA, Aramaki T, Ueda H, Tachibana T. Feeding response following central administration of chicken vasoactive intestinal peptide in chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013 Apr 1;184:61-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.01.002. Epub 2013 Jan 12. PubMed PMID: 23321399.

59: Newmyer BA, Nandar W, Webster RI, Gilbert E, Siegel PB, Cline MA. Neuropeptide Y is associated with changes in appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei but not food intake in a hypophagic avian model. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Jan 1;236(1):327-31. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2012.08.015. Epub 2012 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 22921928.

60: Tachibana T, Matsuda K, Kawamura M, Ueda H, Khan MS, Cline MA. Feeding-suppressive mechanism of sulfated cholecystokinin (26-33) in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2012 Apr;161(4):372-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2011.12.010. Epub 2011 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 22227312.

61: Newmyer BA, Cline MA. Neuropeptide AF is associated with short-term reduced food intake in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Jun 1;219(2):351-3. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2010.12.001. Epub 2010 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 21147172.

62: Katayama S, Shigemi K, Cline MA, Furuse M. Clorgyline inhibits orexin-A-induced arousal in layer-type chicks. J Vet Med Sci. 2011 Apr;73(4):471-4. Epub 2010 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 21079379.

63: Smith ML, Prall BC, Siegel PB, Cline MA. The threshold of insulin-induced hypophagia is lower in chicks selected for low rather than high juvenile body weight. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Jan 20;216(2):719-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2010.08.021. Epub 2010 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 20851146.

64: Tachibana T, Cline MA, Khan MS, Ueda H, Hiramatsu K. Feeding responses to central administration of several somatostatin analogs in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011 Jan;158(1):47-51. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.08.027. Epub 2010 Sep 15. PubMed PMID: 20826222.

65: Tachibana T, Matsuda K, Sawa H, Mikami A, Ueda H, Cline MA. Differential thresholds of neuromedins B-, C-, and bombesin-induced anorexia and crop-emptying rate in chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010 Nov 1;169(2):144-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2010.08.006. Epub 2010 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 20727356.  

66: Katayama S, Shigemi K, Cline MA, Furuse M. Intracerebroventricular injection of orexin-A stimulates monoamine metabolism but not HPA axis in neonatal chicks. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Oct 29;484(2):157-61. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.08.043. Epub 2010 Aug 19. PubMed PMID: 20727938.

67: Katayama S, Hamasu K, Shigemi K, Cline MA, Furuse M. Intracerebroventricular injection of orexin-A, but not orexin-B, induces arousal of layer-type neonatal chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010 Oct;157(2):132-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.05.018. Epub 2010 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 20595012.

68: Tachibana T, Matsuda K, Khan MS, Ueda H, Cline MA. Feeding and drinking response following central administration of neuromedin S in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010 Sep;157(1):63-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.04.020. Epub 2010 May 6. PubMed PMID: 20451649.

69: Cline MA, Siders R, Newmyer BA, Smith ML, Siegel PB. Both calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptides' thresholds of hypophagia are considerably lower in chicks selected for high rather than low juvenile body weight. Physiol Behav. 2010 Sep 1;101(2):254-9. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.05.008. Epub 2010 May 20. PubMed PMID: 20493197.

70: Tachibana T, Matsuda K, Khan SI, Ueda H, Cline MA. Feeding and drinking response following central administrations of bombesin-like peptides in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010 Aug;156(4):394-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.03.008. Epub 2010 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 20233609.  

71: Newmyer BA, Siegel PB, Cline MA. Neuropeptide AF differentially affects anorexia in lines of chickens selected for high or low body weight. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010 Jun;22(6):593-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2010.01991.x. Epub 2010 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 20236226.

72: Cline MA, Cofield SA, Tachibana T. Central litorin injection is associated with primary anorexigenic effects that coincide with activation of the magnocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus. Neuropeptides. 2010 Jun;44(3):247-52. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2009.12.015. Epub 2010 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 20116849.

73: Cline MA, Nandar W, Bowden C, Calchary W, Smith ML, Prall B, Newmyer B, Orion Rogers J, Siegel PB. The threshold of amylin-induced anorexia is lower in chicks selected for low compared to high juvenile body weight. Behav Brain Res. 2010 Apr 2;208(2):650-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.12.032. Epub 2009 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 20036693.

74: Tachibana T, Khan MS, Matsuda K, Ueda H, Cline MA. Central administration of substance P inhibits feeding behavior in chicks. Horm Behav. 2010 Feb;57(2):203-8. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.11.001. Epub 2009 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 19909753.

75: Cline MA, Layne JE, Calchary WA, Sheehy RR, Tachibana T, Furuse M. LPLRFamide causes anorexigenic effects in broiler chicks and Bobwhite quail. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010 Jan 15;165(2):315-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.07.014. Epub 2009 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 19646446.

76: Newmyer BA, Cline MA. Neuropeptide SF is associated with reduced food intake in chicks. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Dec 14;205(1):311-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.06.013. Epub 2009 Jun 17. PubMed PMID: 19539662.

77: Smith ML, Kohart NA, Newmyer BA, Cline MA. Gamma(2)-melanocyte stimulating hormone decreases food intake in chicks. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Nov 20;465(3):210-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.08.021. Epub 2009 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 19682545.

78: Cline MA, Newmyer BA, Smith ML. The anorectic effect of neuropeptide AF is associated with satiety-related hypothalamic nuclei. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009 Jul;21(7):595-601. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2009.01876.x. PubMed PMID: 19490369.

79: Cline MA, Prall BC, Rogers JO, Tachibana T. Satiety induced by central stresscopin is mediated by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors and hypothalamic changes in chicks. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Jun;92(4):663-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.03.005. Epub 2009 Mar 24. PubMed PMID: 19324068.

80: Cline MA, Sliwa LN. Neuropeptide VF-associated satiety involves mu and kappa but not delta subtypes of opioid receptors in chicks. Neurosci Lett. 2009 May 22;455(3):195-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.03.029. Epub 2009 Mar 14. PubMed PMID: 19429120.

81: Tachibana T, Cline MA, Sugahara K, Ueda H, Hiramatsu K. Central administration of somatostatin stimulates feeding behavior in chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009 May;161(3):354-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.01.022. Epub 2009 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 19523380.

82: Tachibana T, Sugahara K, Ueda H, Cline MA. Role of adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding behavior in layer-type chicks. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009 May;161(3):407-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2009.02.006. Epub 2009 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 19233186.

83: Layne JE, Hunt KE, True T, Gill RS, Combos VE, Cline MA. Central calcitonin exerts anorectic effects via the hypothalamus in chicks. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 May;92(3):433-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.01.007. Epub 2009 Jan 22. PubMed PMID: 19344671.  

84: Cline MA, Calchary WA, Nandar W. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on avian appetite-related processes. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 23;196(2):242-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.004. Epub 2008 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 18835571.

85: Cline MA, Kuo AY, Smith ML, Nandar W, Prall BC, Siegel PB, Denbow DM. Differential feed intake responses to central corticotrophin releasing factor in lines of chickens divergently selected for low or high body weight. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009 Jan;152(1):130-4. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.09.008. Epub 2008 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 18834947.  

86: Cline MA, Mathews DS. Anoretic effects of neuropeptide FF are mediated via central mu and kappa subtypes of opioid receptors and receptor ligands. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008 Nov-Dec;159(2-3):125-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.09.001. Epub 2008 Sep 14. PubMed PMID: 18823989.

87: Prall BC, Cline MA. Anorexigenic effects of central neuropeptide K are associated with hypothalamic changes in juvenile Gallus gallus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008 Nov-Dec;159(2-3):130-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.08.007. Epub 2008 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 18786538.

88: Cline MA, Bowden CN, Calchary WA, Layne JE. Short-term anorexigenic effects of central neuropeptide VF are associated with hypothalamic changes in chicks. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008 Aug;20(8):971-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01749.x. Epub 2008 Jun 6. PubMed PMID: 18540998.

89: Cline MA, Nandar W, Bowden C, Hein PP, Denbow DM, Siegel PB. Differential feeding responses to central alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone in genetically low and high body weight selected lines of chickens. Life Sci. 2008 Aug 1;83(5-6):208-13. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2008.06.003. Epub 2008 Jun 17. PubMed PMID: 18601934.

90: Cline MA, Prall BC, Smith ML, Calchary WA, Siegel PB. Differential appetite-related responses to central neuropeptide S in lines of chickens divergently selected for low or high body weight. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008 Jul;20(7):904-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01742.x. Epub 2008 Apr 28. PubMed PMID: 18445129.

91: Cline MA, Fouse DN, Prall BC. Central and peripheral alytesin cause short-term anorexigenic effects in neonatal chicks. Neuropeptides. 2008 Jun;42(3):283-91. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2008.02.004. Epub 2008 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 18384875.

92: Nandar W, Milligan JM, Cline MA. Mechanisms of xenin-induced anorectic response in chicks (Gallus gallus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008 May 15;157(1):58-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.03.012. Epub 2008 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 18440536.

93: Cline MA, Bowden CN, Nandar W, Rogers JO. Central oxyntomodulin causes anorexigenic effects associated with the hypothalamus and alimentary canal in chicks (Gallus gallus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008 Apr;149(4):405-10. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.01.038. Epub 2008 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 18313343.

94: Cline MA, Nandar W, Smith ML, Pittman BH, Kelly M, Rogers JO. Amylin causes anorexigenic effects via the hypothalamus and brain stem in chicks. Regul Pept. 2008 Feb 7;146(1-3):140-6. Epub 2007 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 17916389.

95: Smith ML, Prall B, Nandar W, Cline MA. Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone potently reduces appetite via the hypothalamus in chicks. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008 Feb;20(2):220-6. Epub 2007 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 18088360.

96: Cline MA, Nandar W, Prall BC, Bowden CN, Denbow DM. Central visfatin causes orexigenic effects in chicks. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Jan 25;186(2):293-7. Epub 2007 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 17920135. 

97: Cline MA, Nandar W, Rogers JO. Central neuropeptide FF reduces feed consumption and affects hypothalamic chemistry in chicks. Neuropeptides. 2007 Dec;41(6):433-9. Epub 2007 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 17936900.

98: Cline MA, Godlove DC, Nandar W, Bowden CN, Prall BC. Anorexigenic effects of central neuropeptide S involve the hypothalamus in chicks (Gallus gallus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007 Nov;148(3):657-63. Epub 2007 Aug 21. PubMed PMID: 17884648.

99: Cline MA, Smith ML. Central alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone attenuates behavioral effects of neuropeptide Y in chicks. Physiol Behav. 2007 Aug 15;91(5):588-92. Epub 2007 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 17482219.

100: Cline MA, Nandar W, Rogers JO. Xenin reduces feed intake by activating the ventromedial hypothalamus and influences gastrointestinal transit rate in chicks. Behav Brain Res. 2007 Apr 16;179(1):28-32. Epub 2007 Jan 10. PubMed PMID: 17270287.

101: Kuo AY, Cline MA, Werner E, Siegel PB, Denbow DM. Leptin effects on food and water intake in lines of chickens selected for high or low body weight. Physiol Behav. 2005 Mar 16;84(3):459-64. PubMed PMID: 15763584.

102: Cline MA, Ralston JN, Seals RC, Lewis GS. Intervals from norgestomet withdrawal and injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin or P.G. 600 to estrus and ovulation in ewes. J Anim Sci. 2001 Mar;79(3):589-94. PubMed PMID: 11263818.